Visualization of gram-positive bacterial pili

Chungyu Chang, I. Hsiu Huang, Antoni P.A. Hendrickx, Hung Ton-That

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

14 Scopus citations


Pili or fimbriae are recognized as essential virulence determinants assembled on the bacterial surface. Gram-positive bacteria produce covalently linked pilus structures that are distinct from gram-negative counterparts. In this chapter, we describe three commonly used techniques to extract, detect, and visualize pili from gram-positive bacteria: (1) Western blot analysis, (2) Immuno-Electron Microscopy, and (3) Atomic Force Microscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBacterial Cell Surfaces
Subtitle of host publicationMethods and Protocols
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages19
ISBN (Print)9781627032445
StatePublished - 2013

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745


  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Fimbriae
  • Gram-positive bacteria
  • Immunoelectron microscopy
  • Pilus detection
  • Sortase
  • Western blots

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    Chang, C., Huang, I. H., Hendrickx, A. P. A., & Ton-That, H. (2013). Visualization of gram-positive bacterial pili. In Bacterial Cell Surfaces: Methods and Protocols (pp. 77-95). (Methods in Molecular Biology; Vol. 966). Humana Press Inc..