Identifying and treating risk markers for vascular disease in diabetes is significant in preventing long-term disabilities and containing health care costs. Current research recommends maintaining normal blood glucose levels in all diabetes patients. Blood glucose that is elevated for several years is a major factor in the development and progression of microvascular diabetes complications. Patients play a key role in monitoring vascular disease risk markers. This article provides information on the risk markers to monitor, microvascular and macrovascular complications, and current therapies to combat complication progression.