Unveiling the effect of estrogen receptors in alcoholic liver disease: A novel outlook

Sukriti Baweja, Ashmit Mittal, Swati Thangariyal, P. Debishree Subudhi, Shivani Gautam, Rashmi Kaul

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a multifaceted development, progressing from alcoholic steatosis to alcoholic hepatitis and ultimately to alcoholic cirrhosis, irreversible liver damage that can even result in hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of ALD is increasing globally, particularly among middle-aged adults. Gender-based studies have revealed that ALD affects more men; however, disease progression differs between men and women. Despite this, the molecular understanding of alcohol-induced liver injury among genders and its association with changes in sex hormone metabolism, particularly with estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERs) in ALD, remains poor. This review focuses on experimental and human studies describing alcohol and its association with estrogen metabolism and signaling via ERs. Chronic alcohol consumption affects the immune response, and whether estrogen has any contributory effect remains inadequately studied. This review also discusses various therapeutic approaches currently in use and future approaches that can affect the response or progression via estrogen signaling. The role of gender on alcohol consumption and its association with steroid hormones must be elucidated for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of ALD, the development of effective therapeutic approaches, and better disease management in both men and women, as ALD remains a major public health concern.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-341
Number of pages9
JournalLiver Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Alcoholic liver disease (ALD)
  • Estrogen
  • Estrogen receptors (ERs)
  • Immune response
  • Inflammation
  • Therapeutic target


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