Understanding Public Perception of Naloxone: A Study of FAQs and Answer Source Credibility

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The most commonly used intervention for opioid overdoses is naloxone. With naloxone soon to be sold over-the-counter in the United States, the goal of this paper is to categorize frequently asked questions (FAQs) and answers about naloxone using internet sources in a cross-sectional fashion. Methods: Terms “narcan” and “naloxone” were searched on a clean Google Chrome browser using the “People also asked” tab to find FAQs and their answer sources. We classified questions and sources and assessed each website’s quality and credibility grading with JAMA benchmark criteria. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine variance of mean JAMA score by source type and Post-Hoc Dunn’s test with Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.005 used to compare source types. Results: Of the 305 unique questions, 202 (66.2%) were classified as facts, 78 (25.6%) were policy, and 25 (8.2%) were value. Of the 144 unique answer sources, the two most common included 55 (38.2%) which were government entities and 47 (32.6%) which were commercial entities. Ninety-two (of 144, 63.9%) sources met three or more JAMA benchmark criteria. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the JAMA benchmark scores by source type H(4) = 12.75, p = 0.0126 and between the mean rank of academic and government sources (p = 0.0036). Conclusion: We identified FAQs and their citations about naloxone, highlighting potential lack of understanding and knowledge of this important intervention. We recommend updating websites to accurately reflect current and useful information for those that may require naloxone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1352-1356
Number of pages5
JournalSubstance Use and Misuse
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2024


  • FAQs
  • internet
  • naloxone
  • opioids


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