The Quantitation of Cocaine on U.S. Currency: Survey and Significance of the Levels of Contamination

Thomas H. Jourdan, Allison M. Veitenheimer, Cynthia K. Murray, Jarrad R. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It has long been suspected that the illicit distribution of cocaine in the United States has led to a large-scale contamination of the currency supply. To investigate the extent of contamination, 418 currency samples (4174 bills) were collected from 90 locations around the United States from 1993 to 2009. The extent of their cocaine contamination was quantitated via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of cocaine contamination was determined to average 2.34 ng/bill across all denominations ($1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100). Levels of cocaine contamination on currency submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory in criminal cases over the 1993-2001 timeframe had significantly higher contamination than currency in general circulation. A mathematical model was developed based on the background survey that indicates the likelihood of drawing a bill in specific concentration ranges. For example, there is a 0.8349 likelihood that random bill will have contamination less than 20 ng.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-624
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
Volume58
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2013

Fingerprint

Cocaine
Liquid Chromatography
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry
Theoretical Models
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Cocaine
  • Contamination of currency
  • Forensic science
  • Gas chromatography
  • Liquid chromatography
  • Mass spectrometry

Cite this

Jourdan, Thomas H. ; Veitenheimer, Allison M. ; Murray, Cynthia K. ; Wagner, Jarrad R. / The Quantitation of Cocaine on U.S. Currency : Survey and Significance of the Levels of Contamination. In: Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2013 ; Vol. 58, No. 3. pp. 616-624.
@article{9833fee04ec04771a0a1313d4c0865c0,
title = "The Quantitation of Cocaine on U.S. Currency: Survey and Significance of the Levels of Contamination",
abstract = "It has long been suspected that the illicit distribution of cocaine in the United States has led to a large-scale contamination of the currency supply. To investigate the extent of contamination, 418 currency samples (4174 bills) were collected from 90 locations around the United States from 1993 to 2009. The extent of their cocaine contamination was quantitated via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of cocaine contamination was determined to average 2.34 ng/bill across all denominations ($1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100). Levels of cocaine contamination on currency submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory in criminal cases over the 1993-2001 timeframe had significantly higher contamination than currency in general circulation. A mathematical model was developed based on the background survey that indicates the likelihood of drawing a bill in specific concentration ranges. For example, there is a 0.8349 likelihood that random bill will have contamination less than 20 ng.",
keywords = "Cocaine, Contamination of currency, Forensic science, Gas chromatography, Liquid chromatography, Mass spectrometry",
author = "Jourdan, {Thomas H.} and Veitenheimer, {Allison M.} and Murray, {Cynthia K.} and Wagner, {Jarrad R.}",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/1556-4029.12097",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "616--624",
journal = "Journal of Forensic Sciences",
issn = "0022-1198",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "3",

}

The Quantitation of Cocaine on U.S. Currency : Survey and Significance of the Levels of Contamination. / Jourdan, Thomas H.; Veitenheimer, Allison M.; Murray, Cynthia K.; Wagner, Jarrad R.

In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 58, No. 3, 01.05.2013, p. 616-624.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Quantitation of Cocaine on U.S. Currency

T2 - Survey and Significance of the Levels of Contamination

AU - Jourdan, Thomas H.

AU - Veitenheimer, Allison M.

AU - Murray, Cynthia K.

AU - Wagner, Jarrad R.

PY - 2013/5/1

Y1 - 2013/5/1

N2 - It has long been suspected that the illicit distribution of cocaine in the United States has led to a large-scale contamination of the currency supply. To investigate the extent of contamination, 418 currency samples (4174 bills) were collected from 90 locations around the United States from 1993 to 2009. The extent of their cocaine contamination was quantitated via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of cocaine contamination was determined to average 2.34 ng/bill across all denominations ($1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100). Levels of cocaine contamination on currency submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory in criminal cases over the 1993-2001 timeframe had significantly higher contamination than currency in general circulation. A mathematical model was developed based on the background survey that indicates the likelihood of drawing a bill in specific concentration ranges. For example, there is a 0.8349 likelihood that random bill will have contamination less than 20 ng.

AB - It has long been suspected that the illicit distribution of cocaine in the United States has led to a large-scale contamination of the currency supply. To investigate the extent of contamination, 418 currency samples (4174 bills) were collected from 90 locations around the United States from 1993 to 2009. The extent of their cocaine contamination was quantitated via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of cocaine contamination was determined to average 2.34 ng/bill across all denominations ($1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100). Levels of cocaine contamination on currency submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory in criminal cases over the 1993-2001 timeframe had significantly higher contamination than currency in general circulation. A mathematical model was developed based on the background survey that indicates the likelihood of drawing a bill in specific concentration ranges. For example, there is a 0.8349 likelihood that random bill will have contamination less than 20 ng.

KW - Cocaine

KW - Contamination of currency

KW - Forensic science

KW - Gas chromatography

KW - Liquid chromatography

KW - Mass spectrometry

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84876729302&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/1556-4029.12097

DO - 10.1111/1556-4029.12097

M3 - Article

C2 - 23550619

AN - SCOPUS:84876729302

VL - 58

SP - 616

EP - 624

JO - Journal of Forensic Sciences

JF - Journal of Forensic Sciences

SN - 0022-1198

IS - 3

ER -