The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

Cody F. Bahavar, Feifan Zhou, Aamr M. Hasanjee, Connor L. West, Robert E. Nordquist, Tomas Hode, Hong Liu, Wei R. Chen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for interstitial and non-invasive LIT.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiophotonics and Immune Responses X
EditorsWei R. Chen
ISBN (Electronic)9781628414141
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015
EventBiophotonics and Immune Responses X - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 9 Feb 201510 Feb 2015

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferenceBiophotonics and Immune Responses X
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Glycated chitosan
  • Immunological stimulant
  • Interstitial laser irradiation
  • Metastatic cancer
  • Single-walled carbon nanotubes
  • Thermal cytotoxicity


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