The common factors of grit, hope, and optimism differentially influence suicide resilience

Déjà N. Clement, Laricka R. Wingate, Ashley B. Cole, Victoria M. O’keefe, David W. Hollingsworth, Collin L. Davidson, Jameson K. Hirsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


No study to date has simultaneously examined the commonalities and unique aspects of positive psychological factors and whether these factors uniquely account for a reduction in suicide risk. Using a factor analytic approach, the current study examined the relationships between grit, hope, optimism, and their unique and overlapping relationships in predicting suicide ideation. Results of principle axis factor analysis demonstrated close relationships between these variables at both the construct and item level. Item-level analyses supported a five-factor solution (Stick-to-Itiveness, Poor Future, Consistency of Interest, Positive Future, and Poor Pathways). Four of the five factors (excluding Stick-to-Itiveness) were associated with suicide ideation. Additionally, results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that two of the five factors (Consistency of Interest and Positive Future) negatively predicted suicide ideation while Poor Future positively predicted suicide ideation. Implications regarding the interrelationships between grit, hope, and optimism with suicide ideation are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9588
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number24
StatePublished - 2 Dec 2020


  • Grit
  • Hope
  • Hopelessness
  • Suicide ideation


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