Sodium fluoroacetate

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Sodium fluoroacetate is the salt of a naturally occurring plant-derived toxin found in Australia, Brazil, and Africa, which was further developed as a rodenticide (rodents) and predacide (predators) in the mid-1900s. A “toxic collar” was developed to restrict chemical spread in the ecosystem. When the collar was ruptured after a predator attack, the collar would restrict the poison to the predator. In the late 1970s, the use of sodium fluoroacetate was significantly restricted due to its high acute toxicity and the need for specialized training for application. Fluoroacetate is converted to fluorocitrate and is an inhibitor of the Krebs cycle. This inhibition will lead to a buildup of citric acid resulting in convulsions and death from cardiac failure or respiratory arrest. The availability of products containing sodium fluoroacetate is permitted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The regulatory conclusion of the EPA is that these products will not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects if the products are used following the restriction on the product labeling.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Toxicology, Fourth Edition
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 1-9
ISBN (Electronic)9780128243152
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Fluorocitrate
  • Metabolic poison
  • Organofluorine
  • Pesticide
  • Poison pea
  • Predacide
  • Rodenticide


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