Saccadic velocity and pupillary reflexes during acclimatization to altitude (4300 m)

Allen Cymerman, Stephen R. Muza, Anne L. Friedlander, Charles S. Fulco, Paul B. Rock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Oculometrics have been shown to be responsive to acute hypoxemia. We investigated whether oculometrics could be used as an objective index of a hypoxic effect on the central nervous system (CNS) during altitude acclimatization. We hypothesized that oculomotor reflexes [pupil diameter (PD), constriction amplitude (CA), constriction latency (CL), and saccadic velocity (SV)] changed in concert with a select number of accepted acclimatization variables and that these changes correlated with the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods: After sea-level, baseline (SLB) measurements were obtained, 18 men (19-33 yr) were transported to Pikes Peak, CO (4300 m), where they remained for 14 d. Periodic measurements (days 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12) were made of PD, CA, CL, and SV in addition to heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SpO2), end-tidal PO2 and PCO2, 24-h urinary catecholamine concentrations, and AMS severity (environmental symptoms questionnaire, ESQ). Results: PD and CL decreased from SLB on days 1-4 and subsequently returned toward SLB; these changes paralleled changes in ventilatory and circulatory variables. CA decreased on days 1 and 2 and remained decreased for 12 d. SV increased over days 1-6 then returned toward SLB with continued exposure, similar to changes in urinary catecholamines. With acclimatization, CL correlated with HR and SpO2; SV correlated with PCO2, HR, and SpO2. AMS severity peaked during days 2-4, returned toward SLB over the next 10 d, and correlated only with CL (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Oculometrics can be used as an indicator of CNS hypoxia and altitude acclimatization, although there was no strong correlation with AMS severity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)627-634
Number of pages8
JournalAviation Space and Environmental Medicine
Volume76
Issue number7 I
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2005

Fingerprint

Pupillary Reflex
Acclimatization
Sea level
Constriction
Altitude Sickness
Oceans and Seas
Neurology
Pupil
Heart Rate
Catecholamines
Central Nervous System
Esocidae
Oximetry
Carbon Monoxide
Reflex

Keywords

  • Acute mountain sickness
  • Hypoxia
  • Light reflex
  • Oculometrics
  • Pupillometry

Cite this

Cymerman, Allen ; Muza, Stephen R. ; Friedlander, Anne L. ; Fulco, Charles S. ; Rock, Paul B. / Saccadic velocity and pupillary reflexes during acclimatization to altitude (4300 m). In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 2005 ; Vol. 76, No. 7 I. pp. 627-634.
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abstract = "Introduction: Oculometrics have been shown to be responsive to acute hypoxemia. We investigated whether oculometrics could be used as an objective index of a hypoxic effect on the central nervous system (CNS) during altitude acclimatization. We hypothesized that oculomotor reflexes [pupil diameter (PD), constriction amplitude (CA), constriction latency (CL), and saccadic velocity (SV)] changed in concert with a select number of accepted acclimatization variables and that these changes correlated with the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods: After sea-level, baseline (SLB) measurements were obtained, 18 men (19-33 yr) were transported to Pikes Peak, CO (4300 m), where they remained for 14 d. Periodic measurements (days 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12) were made of PD, CA, CL, and SV in addition to heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SpO2), end-tidal PO2 and PCO2, 24-h urinary catecholamine concentrations, and AMS severity (environmental symptoms questionnaire, ESQ). Results: PD and CL decreased from SLB on days 1-4 and subsequently returned toward SLB; these changes paralleled changes in ventilatory and circulatory variables. CA decreased on days 1 and 2 and remained decreased for 12 d. SV increased over days 1-6 then returned toward SLB with continued exposure, similar to changes in urinary catecholamines. With acclimatization, CL correlated with HR and SpO2; SV correlated with PCO2, HR, and SpO2. AMS severity peaked during days 2-4, returned toward SLB over the next 10 d, and correlated only with CL (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Oculometrics can be used as an indicator of CNS hypoxia and altitude acclimatization, although there was no strong correlation with AMS severity.",
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Cymerman, A, Muza, SR, Friedlander, AL, Fulco, CS & Rock, PB 2005, 'Saccadic velocity and pupillary reflexes during acclimatization to altitude (4300 m)', Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, vol. 76, no. 7 I, pp. 627-634.

Saccadic velocity and pupillary reflexes during acclimatization to altitude (4300 m). / Cymerman, Allen; Muza, Stephen R.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Fulco, Charles S.; Rock, Paul B.

In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 76, No. 7 I, 01.07.2005, p. 627-634.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Saccadic velocity and pupillary reflexes during acclimatization to altitude (4300 m)

AU - Cymerman, Allen

AU - Muza, Stephen R.

AU - Friedlander, Anne L.

AU - Fulco, Charles S.

AU - Rock, Paul B.

PY - 2005/7/1

Y1 - 2005/7/1

N2 - Introduction: Oculometrics have been shown to be responsive to acute hypoxemia. We investigated whether oculometrics could be used as an objective index of a hypoxic effect on the central nervous system (CNS) during altitude acclimatization. We hypothesized that oculomotor reflexes [pupil diameter (PD), constriction amplitude (CA), constriction latency (CL), and saccadic velocity (SV)] changed in concert with a select number of accepted acclimatization variables and that these changes correlated with the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods: After sea-level, baseline (SLB) measurements were obtained, 18 men (19-33 yr) were transported to Pikes Peak, CO (4300 m), where they remained for 14 d. Periodic measurements (days 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12) were made of PD, CA, CL, and SV in addition to heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SpO2), end-tidal PO2 and PCO2, 24-h urinary catecholamine concentrations, and AMS severity (environmental symptoms questionnaire, ESQ). Results: PD and CL decreased from SLB on days 1-4 and subsequently returned toward SLB; these changes paralleled changes in ventilatory and circulatory variables. CA decreased on days 1 and 2 and remained decreased for 12 d. SV increased over days 1-6 then returned toward SLB with continued exposure, similar to changes in urinary catecholamines. With acclimatization, CL correlated with HR and SpO2; SV correlated with PCO2, HR, and SpO2. AMS severity peaked during days 2-4, returned toward SLB over the next 10 d, and correlated only with CL (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Oculometrics can be used as an indicator of CNS hypoxia and altitude acclimatization, although there was no strong correlation with AMS severity.

AB - Introduction: Oculometrics have been shown to be responsive to acute hypoxemia. We investigated whether oculometrics could be used as an objective index of a hypoxic effect on the central nervous system (CNS) during altitude acclimatization. We hypothesized that oculomotor reflexes [pupil diameter (PD), constriction amplitude (CA), constriction latency (CL), and saccadic velocity (SV)] changed in concert with a select number of accepted acclimatization variables and that these changes correlated with the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods: After sea-level, baseline (SLB) measurements were obtained, 18 men (19-33 yr) were transported to Pikes Peak, CO (4300 m), where they remained for 14 d. Periodic measurements (days 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12) were made of PD, CA, CL, and SV in addition to heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SpO2), end-tidal PO2 and PCO2, 24-h urinary catecholamine concentrations, and AMS severity (environmental symptoms questionnaire, ESQ). Results: PD and CL decreased from SLB on days 1-4 and subsequently returned toward SLB; these changes paralleled changes in ventilatory and circulatory variables. CA decreased on days 1 and 2 and remained decreased for 12 d. SV increased over days 1-6 then returned toward SLB with continued exposure, similar to changes in urinary catecholamines. With acclimatization, CL correlated with HR and SpO2; SV correlated with PCO2, HR, and SpO2. AMS severity peaked during days 2-4, returned toward SLB over the next 10 d, and correlated only with CL (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Oculometrics can be used as an indicator of CNS hypoxia and altitude acclimatization, although there was no strong correlation with AMS severity.

KW - Acute mountain sickness

KW - Hypoxia

KW - Light reflex

KW - Oculometrics

KW - Pupillometry

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