A great body of experimental evidence indicates that the main target for the pharmacological action of local anesthetics (LAs) is the voltage-gated Na+ channel. However, the epidural and spinal anesthesia as well as the behavioral effects of LAs cannot be explained exclusively by its inhibitory effect on the voltage-gated Na+ channel. Thus, the involvement of other ion channel receptors has been suggested. Particularly, two members of the neurotransmitter-gated ion channel receptor superfamily, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT3R type). In this regard, the aim of this review is to explain and delineate the mechanism by which LAs inhibit both ionotropic receptors from peripheral and central nervous systems. Local anesthetics inhibit the ion channel activity of both muscle- and neuronal-type AChRs in a noncompetitive fashion. Additionally, LAs inhibit the 5-HT3R by competing with the serotonergic agonist binding sites. The noncompetitive inhibitory action of LAs on the AChR is ascribed to two possible blocking mechanisms. An open-channel-blocking mechanism where the drug binds to the open channel and/or an allosteric mechanism where LAs bind to closed channels. The open-channel-blocking mechanism is in accord with the existence of high-affinity LA binding sites located in the ion channel. The allosteric mechanism seems to be physiologically more relevant than the open-channel-blocking mechanism. The inhibitory property of LAs is also elicited by binding to several low-affinity sites positioned at the lipid-AChR interface. However, there is no clearcut evidence indicating whether these sites are located at either the annular or the nonannular lipid domain.Both tertiary (protonated) and quaternary LAs gain the interior of the channel through the hydrophilic pathway formed by the extracellular ion channel's mouth with the concomitant ion flux blockade. Nevertheless, an alternative mode of action is proposed for both deprotonated tertiary and permanently-uncharged LAs: they may pass from the lipid membrane core to the lumen of the ion channel through a hydrophobic pathway. Perhaps this hydrophobic pathway is structurally related to the nonannular lipid domain.Regarding the LA binding site location on the 5-HT3R, at least two amino acids have been involved. Glutamic acid at position 106 which is located in a residue sequence homologous to loop A from the principal component of the binding site for cholinergic agonists and competitive antagonists, and Trp67 which is positioned in a stretch of amino acids homologous to loop F from the complementary component of the cholinergic ligand binding site. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.
- 5-Hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor
- Competitive antagonists
- Local anesthetics
- Localization of binding sites
- Mechanisms of action
- Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
- Noncompetitive inhibitors