Background: Smoking-related disparities exist among racial/ethnic minoritized groups. Objective: We compared quit ratios and smoking cessation-related protective and risk factors by race/ethnicity to inform approaches to reduce disparities. Methods: Among adults who smoke with a quit attempt from Wave 4 (2016–2017) Population Assessment of Tobacco Use and Health Study, the following factors were examined by racial/ethnic group (American Indians/Alaska Native [AI/AN;n = 165], Black/African American [AA;n = 526], Asian [n = 38], Hispanic/Latino/Latina/Spanish [n = 475], or White [n = 1,960]), wherein each were nearly gender-balanced: cessation medications, counseling/self-help materials, home smoking ban, social support, e-cigarette use, sleep, and mental health. Results: Quit ratio was lower for AI/AN (adjusted odds ratio[aOR]:0.61) and Black/AA (aOR:0.49) and higher for Asian (aOR:1.90) and Hispanic/Latino/Latina/Spanish (aOR:1.30) than White adults. Medication use was low among all and lower among Black/AA (aOR:0.70) and Hispanic/Latino/Latina/Spanish (aOR:0.56) than White adults. Use of counseling/self-help materials were low among all and higher in AI/AN (aOR:1.85), Black/AA (aOR:1.87), and Hispanic/Latino/Latina/Spanish (aOR:1.49) than White adults. Presence of a smoking ban was lower among Black/AA (aOR:0.40) and higher in Hispanic/Latino/Latina/Spanish (aOR:1.59) than White adults. E-cigarette use was lower in Black/AA (aOR:0.53) and Hispanic/Latino/Latina/Spanish (aOR:0.43) than White adults. Sadness, anxiety, and sleep difficulties were higher in AI/AN (aORs:1.57, 1.50, 1.64) than White adults. Conclusions: All racial/ethnic groups would benefit from policies and programs that increase cessation medications and counseling. Quit ratios were particularly low among Black/AA and AI/AN adults. Black/AA adults may benefit from efforts to increase smoking bans, while AI/AN adults may benefit from cessation approaches that simultaneously target sleep and mental health.
- American Indian/Alaska Native persons; health disparities; tobacco use; cessation