No detectable insecticide resistance in swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) following long-term exposure to naled (Dibrom 8)

Jelena Runjaic, Ian J. Bellovich, Catherine E. Page, Charles R. Brown, Warren Booth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath, is a hematophagous ectoparasite of the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot, and is closely related to bed bugs (Cimex spp.). Evolution of insecticide resistance has been documented for bed bugs but not studied in Oeciacus. For periods of 17 and 32 yr, two cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska were treated during the summer breeding season using the organophosphate insecticide Dibrom. Despite continual treatments, O. vicarius has been observed frequently within these colonies. We evaluated the efficacy of Dibrom 8 on O. vicarius during the 2016 season at two treated colonies and four that had never experienced treatment. Dibrom 8 was found to be effective in 100% of trials, with immobilization within minutes and death within 72 h, for individuals from all colonies. In control treatments (water), individuals collected from treated colonies exhibited greater survival than individuals from untreated colonies, and those from active colonies (bugs fed) had greater survival than those from inactive colonies (bugs unfed). A residual effect was observed in both lab and field trials: 100% mortality occurred in the lab after exposure to filter paper substrates treated both 5 and 10 d earlier, and in the field, nests treated once early in the season had O. vicarius counts 43 d later that were <1% of those from untreated nests within the same colony. We hypothesize that the lack of resistance results from the limited potential for resistance allele fixation due to outbreeding and frequent immigration of insecticide-naïve individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)994-998
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • cholinesterase inhibitor
  • Oeciacus vicarius
  • organophospate
  • Petrochelidon pyrrhonota


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