There is substantial evidence demonstrating an association between inflammation and neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. Preclinical studies in animal models have provided critical insights into the role of inflammation in neurodevelopment, yet, there remains much to discover in terms of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved. This chapter provides a review of key epidemiological and clinical evidence for the role of inflammation in neurodevelopment as well as mechanistic insights from preclinical studies. The focus will be on the impact of maternal/perinatal inflammation on neuroinflammation, brain injury, and behavioral deficits in the affected offspring, with a particular emphasis on the most recent findings in the literature. Finally, there will be a discussion of potential therapeutic strategies to prevent/reduce inflammation-mediated disruptions in neurodevelopment.