Multilevel effects of alcohol among early adolescents in an urban school district

Julie M. Croff, Ronald B. Cox, Isaac J. Washburn, Chao Liu, Clinton L. Broadbent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Aims: To examine how interpersonal interactions within and between the social networks formed by teachers, parents, students, and others shape the unique culture of the school, which in turn, reciprocally exerts a determining influence on each individual in the network. Design: Cross-sectional study exploring whether factors associated with alcohol use at the individual level also exert influence on the culture of a school. Setting: Twelve middle schools within an urban school district in the Midwestern United States. Participants: Seventh grade students (N = 1,620). Measures: Lifetime alcohol use behaviors; mothers’ and fathers’ involvement in their child’s education; and peer deviance. Findings: The findings of this study suggest that as parents’ involvement in education increases, and as peer deviance decreases, there are direct benefits to the child, and a protective effect for other children within the school when, in the aggregate, parental involvement increases and peer deviance decreases. Conclusions: The effect of interventions to improve parent involvement and reduce peer deviance, with examinations at the individual-level and school-level, warrant future study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-94
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 23 Dec 2020


  • alcohol use
  • culture
  • middle school
  • parent involvement
  • peer deviance


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