Improving the generalization of computer-based math fluency building through the use of sufficient stimulus exemplars

Sara E. House Rich, Gary J. Duhon, James Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Computers have become an important piece of technology in classrooms for implementing academic interventions. Often, students’ responses to these interventions are used to help make important educational decisions. Therefore, it is important to consider the effect of these interventions across multiple contexts. For example, previous research has demonstrated that when students practice math fact fluency on the computers gains did not generalize to paper-pencil performance. The current study extended this research by examining the effect of multiple stimulus exemplars on the generalization of computer-based math practice to paper-pencil performance. A total of 57 second-grade students completed fluency drills only on the computer, computer mixed with paper-pencil or with only paper-pencil. Pretest- posttest performance was evaluated using a 3 × 2 doubly multivariate repeatedmeasures ANOVA, with follow-up univariate analysis to determine whether the interaction between time and treatment type was similar across matched and unmatched treatment modalities. Results from previous research were replicated with a lack of generalization across modalities, but the addition of multiple stimulus exemplars resulted in increased generalization for those students receiving a mix of computer and paper-pencil practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-136
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Behavioral Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - 21 Oct 2017


  • Computer instruction
  • Fluency
  • Generalization
  • Math


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