Implementation Facilitators and Barriers for Primary Care Providers Prescribing Daily Oral PrEP to Adolescents in the United States

Christopher Owens, Samuel J. Gray, Kaileigh Carter, Matt Hoffman, Cody Mullen, Randolph D. Hubach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Primary care providers (PCPs) are critical in prescribing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to adolescents at risk of HIV. More research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers PCPs encounter in prescribing PrEP to eligible adolescents post-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. This online cross-sectional survey examined the PrEP implementation facilitators and barriers among a national sample of PCPs in the United States. PCPs (n = 502) specializing in family medicine or pediatrics were recruited from a Qualtrics panel from July 15 to August 9, 2022. We analyzed the collected data using content analysis and applied the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) to codebook creation and data analysis. We conducted a Fisher’s exact chi-square test of independence to compare facilitator and barrier prevalence differences between participants who had and had not prescribed PrEP to an adolescent patient. Results demonstrate that (1) distributing prescriber-focused educational materials, (2) involving parents, (3) changing liability laws, (4) enhancing adolescent PrEP uptake and adherence, (5) changing clinical resources, and (6) using mass/social media to change community norms might be strategies that influence PCPs prescribing PrEP to eligible adolescent patients. Results from this study could facilitate the planning of hybrid implementation-effectiveness trials designed to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of implementation strategies in improving the practices of PCPs prescribing PrEP to at-risk adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-393
Number of pages15
JournalAIDS Patient Care and STDs
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023


  • PrEP
  • adolescents
  • barriers
  • facilitators
  • implementation strategies
  • primary care providers


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