Glutamate metabolism in the injured spinal cord

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Glutamate is used in the central nervous system (CNS) as an excitatory neurotransmitter, as a precursor for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and as a carbon source for energy production. Glutamate levels are maintained in the CNS in a ôglutamine cycleö by the neuronal enzyme, glutaminase (GT), and the astrocytic enzyme, glutamine synthetase (GS). Following trauma to the CNS, glutamate is released acutely in large amounts. Chronically, reactive astrocytosis and reorganization of glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways occur. Following spinal transection in the rat, reactive astrocytes in the white and gray matter have increased mRNA for GS within hours and have increased GS immunoreactivity and/or enzyme activity which lasts for weeks. Decreased GT enzyme activity occurs several days following spinal transection, predominantly in the gray matter. These changes in GS and GT lead to altered levels of glutamate and glutamine in the white and gray matter both rostral and caudal to the injury site. The altered glutamate metabolism in the spinal cord may contribute to nervous tissue reorganization and to pathophysiological conditions following spinal cord injury.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFASEB Journal
Volume12
Issue number5
StatePublished - 20 Mar 1998

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Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase
Metabolism
spinal cord
glutamates
glutamate-ammonia ligase
Glutamic Acid
glutaminase
Spinal Cord
Glutaminase
Neurology
metabolism
central nervous system
Central Nervous System
Enzyme activity
Enzymes
Glutamine
glutamine
enzyme activity
Nerve Tissue
Gliosis

Cite this

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title = "Glutamate metabolism in the injured spinal cord",
abstract = "Glutamate is used in the central nervous system (CNS) as an excitatory neurotransmitter, as a precursor for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and as a carbon source for energy production. Glutamate levels are maintained in the CNS in a {\^o}glutamine cycle{\"o} by the neuronal enzyme, glutaminase (GT), and the astrocytic enzyme, glutamine synthetase (GS). Following trauma to the CNS, glutamate is released acutely in large amounts. Chronically, reactive astrocytosis and reorganization of glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways occur. Following spinal transection in the rat, reactive astrocytes in the white and gray matter have increased mRNA for GS within hours and have increased GS immunoreactivity and/or enzyme activity which lasts for weeks. Decreased GT enzyme activity occurs several days following spinal transection, predominantly in the gray matter. These changes in GS and GT lead to altered levels of glutamate and glutamine in the white and gray matter both rostral and caudal to the injury site. The altered glutamate metabolism in the spinal cord may contribute to nervous tissue reorganization and to pathophysiological conditions following spinal cord injury.",
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Glutamate metabolism in the injured spinal cord. / Miller, Kenneth E.

In: FASEB Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, 20.03.1998.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Glutamate is used in the central nervous system (CNS) as an excitatory neurotransmitter, as a precursor for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and as a carbon source for energy production. Glutamate levels are maintained in the CNS in a ôglutamine cycleö by the neuronal enzyme, glutaminase (GT), and the astrocytic enzyme, glutamine synthetase (GS). Following trauma to the CNS, glutamate is released acutely in large amounts. Chronically, reactive astrocytosis and reorganization of glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways occur. Following spinal transection in the rat, reactive astrocytes in the white and gray matter have increased mRNA for GS within hours and have increased GS immunoreactivity and/or enzyme activity which lasts for weeks. Decreased GT enzyme activity occurs several days following spinal transection, predominantly in the gray matter. These changes in GS and GT lead to altered levels of glutamate and glutamine in the white and gray matter both rostral and caudal to the injury site. The altered glutamate metabolism in the spinal cord may contribute to nervous tissue reorganization and to pathophysiological conditions following spinal cord injury.

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