The multidimensional nature of pain in sickle cell disease (SCD) has rendered its therapeutic management extremely challenging. In this study, we explored the role of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of candidate gene GCH1 in SCD pain. Composite pain index (CPI) scores and acute care utilization rates were used as phenotype markers. Rs8007267 was associated with chronic pain (additive model: B = –3.76, p = 0.037; dominant model: B = –5.61, p = 0.021) and rs3783641 (additive model: incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.37, p = 0.024; recessive model: IRR = 1.81, p = 0.018) with utilization rate. These associations persisted when subjects with HbSS and HbSβ° genotype only were analyzed. We also identified two haploblocks (rs10483639[G>C]-rs752688[C>T]-rs4411417[T>C] and rs3783641[T>A]-rs8007267[T>C]) with SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium. Of these, haplotype T-C of haploblock rs3783641-rs8007267 showed significant association with rate of utilization (odds ratio [OR] = 0.31, p = 0.001). Our study indicates potential contribution of GCH1 polymorphisms to the variability of pain in African Americans with SCD.