Factors Associated with Condom Use among a Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Residing in Rural Oklahoma

Zachary Giano, Katherine E. Kavanaugh, André R. Durham, Joseph M. Currin, Denna L. Wheeler, Julie M. Croff, Randolph D. Hubach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Public health literature often neglects populations from rural communities, particularly with men who have sex with men (MSM). Although HIV/STI infections are decreasing slightly, there is an increase within rural MSM, thus opening the door for further research on condom use behavior in a rural context. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 MSM in rural Oklahoma regarding their condom use and sexual behaviors. A qualitative analysis revealed five themes with respect to condom usage: physical discomfort of condoms, relationship trust, usage based on the type of sexual act, substance use, and knowledge of a partner’s HIV/STI status. A sixth theme within the context of rural Oklahoma revealed participants’ fear of physical/verbal abuse, hesitations seeking medical help due to confidentially issues, and general acknowledgment of the lack of education and resources available. Implications include increasing mobile testing locations and a push for marketing greater confidentially within health service providers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1881-1901
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Homosexuality
Issue number13
StatePublished - 9 Nov 2020


  • HIV prevention
  • Men who have sex with men
  • rural health
  • sexual health


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