Evaluating the generalization of math fact fluency gains across paper and computer performance modalities

Gary J. Duhon, Sara Rich, Terry A. Stinnett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


Computer-based interventions are being used more in the classroom. Student responses to these interventions often contribute to decisions making regarding important outcomes. It is important to understand the effect of these interventions within the context of the intervention as well as across related context. The current study examined the generalization of math fact fluency gains resulting from a computer-based intervention to paper-and-pencil performance. A total of 31 second grade students completed fluency drills on the computer or with paper and pencil. Pretest-posttest performance on both computer and paper and pencil for all students was evaluated using a doubly multivariate repeated measure ANOVA. Results indicated that gains achieved on the computer did not generalize to paper-and-pencil performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-345
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of School Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2012



  • Computer instruction
  • Fluency
  • Generalization
  • Math

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