Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude

Charles S. Fulco, A. L. Friedlander, S. R. Muza, Paul Rock, S. Robinson, E. Lammi, C. J. Baker-Fulco, S. F. Lewis, A. Cymerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Physical performance of sea-level (SL) residents acutely exposed to altitude (ALT) is diminished and may improve somewhat with ALT acclimatization. Hypothesis: A large reduction in lean body mass (LBM), due to severe energy intake deficit during the first 21 d of ALT (4300 m) acclimatization, will adversely affect performance. Methods: At ALT, 10 men received a deficit (DEF) of 1500 kcal·d-1 below body weight (BW) maintenance requirements and 7 men received adequate (ADQ) kcal·d-1 to maintain BW. Performance was assessed by: 1) maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max); 2) time to complete 50 cycles of a lift and carry task (L+C); 3) number of one-arm elbow flexions (10% BW at 22 flexions·min-1; and 4) adductor pollicis (AP) muscle strength and endurance time (repeated 5-s static contractions at 50% of maximal force followed by 5-s rest, to exhaustion). Performance and body composition (using BW and circumference measures) were determined at SL and at ALT on days 2 through 21. Results: At SL, there were no between group differences (p > 0.05) for any of the performance measures. From SL to day 21 at ALT, BW and LBM declined by 6.6 ± 3 kg and 4.6 kg, respectively, for the DEF group (both p < 0.01), but did not change (both p > 0.05) for the ADQ group. Performance changes from day 2 or 3 to day 20 or 21 at ALT were as follows (values are means ± SD): V̇o2max (ml·min-1): DEF = +97 ± 237, ADQ = +159 ± 156; L + C (s): DEF = -62 ± 35*, ADQ = -35 ± 20* (*p < 0.05; improved from day 3); arm flex (reps): DEF = -2 ± 7, ADQ = +2 ± 8; AP endurance (min): DEF = +1.4 ± 2, ADQ = +1.9 ± 2; AP strength (kg): DEF = -0.7 ± 4, ADQ = -1.2 ± 2. There were no differences in performance between groups. Conclusions:A significant BW and LBM loss due to underfeeding during the first 21 d of ALT acclimatization does not impair physical performance at ALT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)758-765
Number of pages8
JournalAviation Space and Environmental Medicine
Volume73
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2002

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Sea level
Energy Intake
Oceans and Seas
Durability
Acclimatization
Body Weight
Units of measurement
Muscle
Arm
Body Weights and Measures
Oxygen
Chemical analysis
Muscle Strength
Elbow
Body Composition

Keywords

  • Altitude anorexia
  • Body weight loss
  • Hypoxia exercise
  • Lean body mass loss

Cite this

Fulco, C. S., Friedlander, A. L., Muza, S. R., Rock, P., Robinson, S., Lammi, E., ... Cymerman, A. (2002). Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 73(8), 758-765.
Fulco, Charles S. ; Friedlander, A. L. ; Muza, S. R. ; Rock, Paul ; Robinson, S. ; Lammi, E. ; Baker-Fulco, C. J. ; Lewis, S. F. ; Cymerman, A. / Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude. In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 2002 ; Vol. 73, No. 8. pp. 758-765.
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abstract = "Background: Physical performance of sea-level (SL) residents acutely exposed to altitude (ALT) is diminished and may improve somewhat with ALT acclimatization. Hypothesis: A large reduction in lean body mass (LBM), due to severe energy intake deficit during the first 21 d of ALT (4300 m) acclimatization, will adversely affect performance. Methods: At ALT, 10 men received a deficit (DEF) of 1500 kcal·d-1 below body weight (BW) maintenance requirements and 7 men received adequate (ADQ) kcal·d-1 to maintain BW. Performance was assessed by: 1) maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max); 2) time to complete 50 cycles of a lift and carry task (L+C); 3) number of one-arm elbow flexions (10{\%} BW at 22 flexions·min-1; and 4) adductor pollicis (AP) muscle strength and endurance time (repeated 5-s static contractions at 50{\%} of maximal force followed by 5-s rest, to exhaustion). Performance and body composition (using BW and circumference measures) were determined at SL and at ALT on days 2 through 21. Results: At SL, there were no between group differences (p > 0.05) for any of the performance measures. From SL to day 21 at ALT, BW and LBM declined by 6.6 ± 3 kg and 4.6 kg, respectively, for the DEF group (both p < 0.01), but did not change (both p > 0.05) for the ADQ group. Performance changes from day 2 or 3 to day 20 or 21 at ALT were as follows (values are means ± SD): V̇o2max (ml·min-1): DEF = +97 ± 237, ADQ = +159 ± 156; L + C (s): DEF = -62 ± 35*, ADQ = -35 ± 20* (*p < 0.05; improved from day 3); arm flex (reps): DEF = -2 ± 7, ADQ = +2 ± 8; AP endurance (min): DEF = +1.4 ± 2, ADQ = +1.9 ± 2; AP strength (kg): DEF = -0.7 ± 4, ADQ = -1.2 ± 2. There were no differences in performance between groups. Conclusions:A significant BW and LBM loss due to underfeeding during the first 21 d of ALT acclimatization does not impair physical performance at ALT.",
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Fulco, CS, Friedlander, AL, Muza, SR, Rock, P, Robinson, S, Lammi, E, Baker-Fulco, CJ, Lewis, SF & Cymerman, A 2002, 'Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude', Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 758-765.

Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude. / Fulco, Charles S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Muza, S. R.; Rock, Paul; Robinson, S.; Lammi, E.; Baker-Fulco, C. J.; Lewis, S. F.; Cymerman, A.

In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 73, No. 8, 01.01.2002, p. 758-765.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude

AU - Fulco, Charles S.

AU - Friedlander, A. L.

AU - Muza, S. R.

AU - Rock, Paul

AU - Robinson, S.

AU - Lammi, E.

AU - Baker-Fulco, C. J.

AU - Lewis, S. F.

AU - Cymerman, A.

PY - 2002/1/1

Y1 - 2002/1/1

N2 - Background: Physical performance of sea-level (SL) residents acutely exposed to altitude (ALT) is diminished and may improve somewhat with ALT acclimatization. Hypothesis: A large reduction in lean body mass (LBM), due to severe energy intake deficit during the first 21 d of ALT (4300 m) acclimatization, will adversely affect performance. Methods: At ALT, 10 men received a deficit (DEF) of 1500 kcal·d-1 below body weight (BW) maintenance requirements and 7 men received adequate (ADQ) kcal·d-1 to maintain BW. Performance was assessed by: 1) maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max); 2) time to complete 50 cycles of a lift and carry task (L+C); 3) number of one-arm elbow flexions (10% BW at 22 flexions·min-1; and 4) adductor pollicis (AP) muscle strength and endurance time (repeated 5-s static contractions at 50% of maximal force followed by 5-s rest, to exhaustion). Performance and body composition (using BW and circumference measures) were determined at SL and at ALT on days 2 through 21. Results: At SL, there were no between group differences (p > 0.05) for any of the performance measures. From SL to day 21 at ALT, BW and LBM declined by 6.6 ± 3 kg and 4.6 kg, respectively, for the DEF group (both p < 0.01), but did not change (both p > 0.05) for the ADQ group. Performance changes from day 2 or 3 to day 20 or 21 at ALT were as follows (values are means ± SD): V̇o2max (ml·min-1): DEF = +97 ± 237, ADQ = +159 ± 156; L + C (s): DEF = -62 ± 35*, ADQ = -35 ± 20* (*p < 0.05; improved from day 3); arm flex (reps): DEF = -2 ± 7, ADQ = +2 ± 8; AP endurance (min): DEF = +1.4 ± 2, ADQ = +1.9 ± 2; AP strength (kg): DEF = -0.7 ± 4, ADQ = -1.2 ± 2. There were no differences in performance between groups. Conclusions:A significant BW and LBM loss due to underfeeding during the first 21 d of ALT acclimatization does not impair physical performance at ALT.

AB - Background: Physical performance of sea-level (SL) residents acutely exposed to altitude (ALT) is diminished and may improve somewhat with ALT acclimatization. Hypothesis: A large reduction in lean body mass (LBM), due to severe energy intake deficit during the first 21 d of ALT (4300 m) acclimatization, will adversely affect performance. Methods: At ALT, 10 men received a deficit (DEF) of 1500 kcal·d-1 below body weight (BW) maintenance requirements and 7 men received adequate (ADQ) kcal·d-1 to maintain BW. Performance was assessed by: 1) maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max); 2) time to complete 50 cycles of a lift and carry task (L+C); 3) number of one-arm elbow flexions (10% BW at 22 flexions·min-1; and 4) adductor pollicis (AP) muscle strength and endurance time (repeated 5-s static contractions at 50% of maximal force followed by 5-s rest, to exhaustion). Performance and body composition (using BW and circumference measures) were determined at SL and at ALT on days 2 through 21. Results: At SL, there were no between group differences (p > 0.05) for any of the performance measures. From SL to day 21 at ALT, BW and LBM declined by 6.6 ± 3 kg and 4.6 kg, respectively, for the DEF group (both p < 0.01), but did not change (both p > 0.05) for the ADQ group. Performance changes from day 2 or 3 to day 20 or 21 at ALT were as follows (values are means ± SD): V̇o2max (ml·min-1): DEF = +97 ± 237, ADQ = +159 ± 156; L + C (s): DEF = -62 ± 35*, ADQ = -35 ± 20* (*p < 0.05; improved from day 3); arm flex (reps): DEF = -2 ± 7, ADQ = +2 ± 8; AP endurance (min): DEF = +1.4 ± 2, ADQ = +1.9 ± 2; AP strength (kg): DEF = -0.7 ± 4, ADQ = -1.2 ± 2. There were no differences in performance between groups. Conclusions:A significant BW and LBM loss due to underfeeding during the first 21 d of ALT acclimatization does not impair physical performance at ALT.

KW - Altitude anorexia

KW - Body weight loss

KW - Hypoxia exercise

KW - Lean body mass loss

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VL - 73

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EP - 765

JO - Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine

JF - Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine

SN - 0095-6562

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Fulco CS, Friedlander AL, Muza SR, Rock P, Robinson S, Lammi E et al. Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 2002 Jan 1;73(8):758-765.