Endemic North American Plants as Potentially Suitable Agents for Wound Cleaning Under Resource Scarce Conditions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Skin and subcutaneous infections are dangerous sequelae of soft tissue injuries, especially in austere situations where medical technology is not available. Numerous plant species endemic to North America have been described as having antibacterial properties. Of these, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), and white oak (Quercus alba) were selected for testing against Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to assess the suitability of all 3 plants as potential antiseptic agents using methods easily replicated in a resource-scarce environment. Methods: Water-soluble natural products were extracted from different concentrations of each plant part using either mechanical agitation at ambient temperature or boiling in unsterilized tap water. Antibacterial activity of each extract against S aureus was assessed using a conventional agar well diffusion bioassay. Zones of inhibition were measured using electronic calipers and were compared to tap water as the negative control. Results: Aqueous extracts of St. John's wort and white oak bark displayed antibacterial effects against S aureus, with St. John's wort being more potent. Chamomile displayed no inhibitory properties at the concentrations examined. Conclusions: These data suggest that both St. John's wort and white oak are potential candidates for infection prophylaxis and therapy in austere wilderness scenarios, with St. John's wort being the more potent agent. White oak may be more logistically feasible because the larger surface area of a white oak tree allows for harvesting a larger quantity of bark compared to the smaller surface area of the St. John's wort plant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-406
Number of pages6
JournalWilderness and Environmental Medicine
Volume30
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2019

Fingerprint

Hypericum
Wounds and Injuries
Chamomile
Quercus
Water
Wilderness
Matricaria
Soft Tissue Injuries
Local Anti-Infective Agents
North America
Infection
Biological Products
Biological Assay
Agar
Staphylococcus aureus
Technology
Skin
Temperature

Keywords

  • Hypericum
  • Matricaria
  • Quercus
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • antiseptic

Cite this

@article{18b5237c0a004ea19018b9463e52ca03,
title = "Endemic North American Plants as Potentially Suitable Agents for Wound Cleaning Under Resource Scarce Conditions",
abstract = "Introduction: Skin and subcutaneous infections are dangerous sequelae of soft tissue injuries, especially in austere situations where medical technology is not available. Numerous plant species endemic to North America have been described as having antibacterial properties. Of these, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), and white oak (Quercus alba) were selected for testing against Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to assess the suitability of all 3 plants as potential antiseptic agents using methods easily replicated in a resource-scarce environment. Methods: Water-soluble natural products were extracted from different concentrations of each plant part using either mechanical agitation at ambient temperature or boiling in unsterilized tap water. Antibacterial activity of each extract against S aureus was assessed using a conventional agar well diffusion bioassay. Zones of inhibition were measured using electronic calipers and were compared to tap water as the negative control. Results: Aqueous extracts of St. John's wort and white oak bark displayed antibacterial effects against S aureus, with St. John's wort being more potent. Chamomile displayed no inhibitory properties at the concentrations examined. Conclusions: These data suggest that both St. John's wort and white oak are potential candidates for infection prophylaxis and therapy in austere wilderness scenarios, with St. John's wort being the more potent agent. White oak may be more logistically feasible because the larger surface area of a white oak tree allows for harvesting a larger quantity of bark compared to the smaller surface area of the St. John's wort plant.",
keywords = "Hypericum, Matricaria, Quercus, Staphylococcus aureus, antiseptic",
author = "Whitehead, {Aldon J.} and Nathan Nelson and Lacy Brame and Champlin, {Franklin R.}",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1016/j.wem.2019.06.002",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "401--406",
journal = "Wilderness and Environmental Medicine",
issn = "1080-6032",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Endemic North American Plants as Potentially Suitable Agents for Wound Cleaning Under Resource Scarce Conditions

AU - Whitehead, Aldon J.

AU - Nelson, Nathan

AU - Brame, Lacy

AU - Champlin, Franklin R.

PY - 2019/12

Y1 - 2019/12

N2 - Introduction: Skin and subcutaneous infections are dangerous sequelae of soft tissue injuries, especially in austere situations where medical technology is not available. Numerous plant species endemic to North America have been described as having antibacterial properties. Of these, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), and white oak (Quercus alba) were selected for testing against Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to assess the suitability of all 3 plants as potential antiseptic agents using methods easily replicated in a resource-scarce environment. Methods: Water-soluble natural products were extracted from different concentrations of each plant part using either mechanical agitation at ambient temperature or boiling in unsterilized tap water. Antibacterial activity of each extract against S aureus was assessed using a conventional agar well diffusion bioassay. Zones of inhibition were measured using electronic calipers and were compared to tap water as the negative control. Results: Aqueous extracts of St. John's wort and white oak bark displayed antibacterial effects against S aureus, with St. John's wort being more potent. Chamomile displayed no inhibitory properties at the concentrations examined. Conclusions: These data suggest that both St. John's wort and white oak are potential candidates for infection prophylaxis and therapy in austere wilderness scenarios, with St. John's wort being the more potent agent. White oak may be more logistically feasible because the larger surface area of a white oak tree allows for harvesting a larger quantity of bark compared to the smaller surface area of the St. John's wort plant.

AB - Introduction: Skin and subcutaneous infections are dangerous sequelae of soft tissue injuries, especially in austere situations where medical technology is not available. Numerous plant species endemic to North America have been described as having antibacterial properties. Of these, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), and white oak (Quercus alba) were selected for testing against Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to assess the suitability of all 3 plants as potential antiseptic agents using methods easily replicated in a resource-scarce environment. Methods: Water-soluble natural products were extracted from different concentrations of each plant part using either mechanical agitation at ambient temperature or boiling in unsterilized tap water. Antibacterial activity of each extract against S aureus was assessed using a conventional agar well diffusion bioassay. Zones of inhibition were measured using electronic calipers and were compared to tap water as the negative control. Results: Aqueous extracts of St. John's wort and white oak bark displayed antibacterial effects against S aureus, with St. John's wort being more potent. Chamomile displayed no inhibitory properties at the concentrations examined. Conclusions: These data suggest that both St. John's wort and white oak are potential candidates for infection prophylaxis and therapy in austere wilderness scenarios, with St. John's wort being the more potent agent. White oak may be more logistically feasible because the larger surface area of a white oak tree allows for harvesting a larger quantity of bark compared to the smaller surface area of the St. John's wort plant.

KW - Hypericum

KW - Matricaria

KW - Quercus

KW - Staphylococcus aureus

KW - antiseptic

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85073748694&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.wem.2019.06.002

DO - 10.1016/j.wem.2019.06.002

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85073748694

VL - 30

SP - 401

EP - 406

JO - Wilderness and Environmental Medicine

JF - Wilderness and Environmental Medicine

SN - 1080-6032

IS - 4

ER -