This chapter offers an overview of research into empathy-related responding in children. We begin this review by differentiating empathy, sympathy, and personal distress reactions and discuss relevant theoretical issues when conceptualizing these emotions. Next, we provide a review of the normative development of empathy-related responding. We consider the role of empathy-related responding in children’s prosocial behavior, social competence, and adjustment, and we highlight the role of self-regulation on children’s empathy-related responding. We also review research on the origins of empathy-related responding, including hereditary and environmental factors, and emerging research on the neuroscience of empathy-related responding and prosocial behavior. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications and future research directions.