Effects of cyclophosphamide on laser immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic cancer

Cody F. Bahavar, Joseph T. Acquaviva, Sheyla Rabei, Allie Sikes, Robert E. Nordquist, Tomas Hode, Hong Liu, Wei R. Chen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. The current mode of operation in LIT is through interstitial laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug that suppresses regulatory T cells when used in low doses. In this study tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT using an 805-nm laser with a power of 2.0 W and low-dose cyclophosphamide. Glycated chitosan was used as an immunological stimulant. The goal was to observe the effects of different doses of cyclophosphamide in addition to LIT on the survival of the tumor-bearing rats.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiophotonics and Immune Responses IX
ISBN (Print)9780819498571
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes
EventBiophotonics and Immune Responses IX - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: 3 Feb 20143 Feb 2014

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferenceBiophotonics and Immune Responses IX
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Glycated chitosan
  • Immunological stimulant
  • Interstitial laser irradiation
  • Metastatic cancer
  • Rat tumor


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