Direct and indirect links between peer factors and adolescent adjustment difficulties

Michael M. Criss, Benjamin J. Houltberg, Lixian Cui, Cara D. Bosler, Amanda Sheffield Morris, Jennifer S. Silk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of emotion regulation in the link between peer factors and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The sample consisted of 206 adolescents (ages 10-18 years) and parents. Peer factors (i.e., peer antisocial behavior, peer co-rumination, peer emotion regulation) and youth depressive symptoms were based on youth reports. Youth emotion regulation and antisocial behavior were assessed using parent and youth ratings. Results showed that peer antisocial behavior was directly (but not indirectly) related to youth antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms, whereas peer emotion regulation was indirectly (but not directly) related to both adolescent outcomes. In addition, peer co-rumination was indirectly related to youth antisocial behavior and directly and indirectly related to youth depressive symptoms. In general, the results indicated little evidence of moderation by adolescent age, sex, or ethnic differences. Implications for peer relationships as socialization contexts are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-90
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Developmental Psychology
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2016



  • Adolescents
  • Antisocial behavior
  • Depression
  • Emotion regulation
  • Peer relationships

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