The SARS-CoV-2 virus has complex and divergent immune alterations in differing hosts and over disease evolution. Much of the nuanced COVID-19 disease immune dysregulation was originally dominated by innate cytokine changes, which has since been replaced with a more complex picture of innate and adaptive changes characterized by simultaneous hyperinflammatory and immunosuppressive phenomena in effector cells. These intricacies are summarized in this review as well as potential relevance from acute infection to a multisystem inflammatory syndrome commonly seen in children. Additional consideration is made for the influence of variant to variant host cellular changes and the impact of potential vaccination upon these phenotypes. Finally, therapeutic benefit for immune alterations are discussed.
- Host immune response