Astroglia are the most prevalent cell type in the human central nervous system (CNS) and perform important roles in normal tissue homeostasis, during pathological events and following trauma. Astroglial-derived chemokines have important neurotrophic effects and are important to CNS immunocompetence and response to injury, in part, due to their direct role in leukocyte and microglial cell recruitment. However, while ethanol is known to induce CNS pathologies and to be peripherally immunosuppressive, ethanol effects on chemokine expression in human astroglia are essentially unknown. We have demonstrated that chemotaxis of human U937 leukocytic cells, across a 0.5 μm pore polycarbonate transmembrane insert, is induced in response to culture media collected from 10 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+10 ng/ml interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated A172 human astroglia cells. The involvement of the chemokine CXCL10 (also known as interferon-γ inducible protein or IP-10) in astroglial-induced chemotaxis of U937 cells has been indicated, as chemotaxis can be reduced by an anti-CXCL10 neutralizing antibody. Interestingly, chemotaxis of U937 cells, in response to astroglial-exposed media, is reduced when astroglia are chronically (9 days) exposed to 50 mM ethanol before stimulation with LPS+IL-1β. Furthermore, we observed that LPS+IL-1β-stimulated CXCL10 production is inhibited in human A172 astroglia exposed to chronic 50 mM ethanol. Thus, alterations in astroglial CXCL10 expression may disrupt CNS immunocompetence and play an important role in ethanol-induced CNS pathologies.
- Brain injury
- Cell migration