Bioinformatics and Evolution of Vertebrate Nociceptin and Opioid Receptors

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ancestrally related membrane proteins on cells that mediate the pharmacological effect of most drugs and neurotransmitters. GPCRs are the largest group of membrane receptor proteins encoded in the human genome. One of the most famous types of GPCRs is the opioid receptors. Opioid family receptors consist of four closely related proteins expressed in all vertebrate brains and spinal cords examined to date. The three classical types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models and in humans are the mu- (MOR), delta- (DOR), and kappa-(KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The fourth and most recent member of the opioid receptor family discovered is the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL). The role of ORL and its ligands in producing analgesia is not as clear, with both analgesic and hyperalgesic effects reported. All four opioid family receptor genes were cloned from expressed mRNA in a number of vertebrate species, and there are enough sequences presently available to carry out bioinformatic analysis. This chapter presents the results of a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using pharmacological studies, bioinformatics, and the latest data from human whole-genome studies. Results confirm our initial hypotheses that the four opioid receptor genes most likely arose by whole-genome duplication, that there is an evolutionary vector of opioid receptor type divergence in sequence and function, and that the hMOR gene shows evidence of positive selection or adaptive evolution in Homo sapiens.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationVitamins and Hormones
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Pages57-94
Number of pages38
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015

Publication series

NameVitamins and Hormones
Volume97
ISSN (Print)0083-6729

Fingerprint

Opioid Receptors
Computational Biology
Vertebrates
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Human Genome
Analgesia
Membrane Proteins
Pharmacology
Genes
kappa Opioid Receptor
nociceptin receptor
Neurotransmitter Agents
Analgesics
Spinal Cord
Proteins
Animal Models
Genome
Ligands
Messenger RNA
Brain

Keywords

  • Gene duplication
  • Molecular evolution
  • Opioid receptors
  • Positive selection

Cite this

Stevens, C. (2015). Bioinformatics and Evolution of Vertebrate Nociceptin and Opioid Receptors. In Vitamins and Hormones (pp. 57-94). (Vitamins and Hormones; Vol. 97). Academic Press Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2014.10.002
Stevens, Craig. / Bioinformatics and Evolution of Vertebrate Nociceptin and Opioid Receptors. Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press Inc., 2015. pp. 57-94 (Vitamins and Hormones).
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Stevens, C 2015, Bioinformatics and Evolution of Vertebrate Nociceptin and Opioid Receptors. in Vitamins and Hormones. Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 97, Academic Press Inc., pp. 57-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2014.10.002

Bioinformatics and Evolution of Vertebrate Nociceptin and Opioid Receptors. / Stevens, Craig.

Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press Inc., 2015. p. 57-94 (Vitamins and Hormones; Vol. 97).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Stevens C. Bioinformatics and Evolution of Vertebrate Nociceptin and Opioid Receptors. In Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press Inc. 2015. p. 57-94. (Vitamins and Hormones). https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2014.10.002