Analgesia produced by immobilization stress and an enkephalinase inhibitor in amphibians

Craig W. Stevens, Soni Sangha, Brian G. Ogg

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24 Scopus citations


The role of endogenous opioids in modulating pain transmission in amphibians was examined by two methods known to activate endogenous opioids in mammals. Analgesia was assessed using the acetic acid test in the Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens. One or 2 h of immobilization produced a significant analgesia lasting for at least 90 min. Systemic, but not spinal, administration of naloxone before immobilization prevented the analgesic effects seen in saline-pretreated controls. Spinal administration of the enkephalinase inhibitor, thiorphan, but not bestaun (both at 100 nmol/frog), produced significant analgesia. The analgesic effect of thiorphan was blocked by coadministration of intraspinal naloxone. These data are the first to suggest a role for endogenous opioid modulation of noxious stimuli in lower vertebrates by examination of stress-induced analgesia and the action of agents that inhibit enkephalin degradation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)675-680
Number of pages6
JournalPharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1995


  • Acetic acid test
  • Alternative model
  • Amphibians
  • Bestatin
  • Enkephalin
  • Naloxone
  • Stress-induced analgesia
  • Thiorphan


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