Preclinical studies of analgesia in amphibians or recommendations for clinical use of analgesics in amphibian species are extremely limited. This article briefly reviews the issues surrounding the use of analgesics in amphibians, starting with common definitions of pain and analgesia when applied to nonhuman animals. Nociceptive and endogenous opioid systems in amphibians are reviewed, and results of preclinical research on opioid and nonopioid analgesics summarized. Recommended opioid and nonopioid analgesics are summarized, and practical recommendations made for their clinical use.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice|
|State||Published - Jan 2011|
- Acetic acid test
- Rana pipiens