Analgesia in amphibians: Preclinical studies and clinical applications

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Preclinical studies of analgesia in amphibians or recommendations for clinical use of analgesics in amphibian species are extremely limited. This article briefly reviews the issues surrounding the use of analgesics in amphibians, starting with common definitions of pain and analgesia when applied to nonhuman animals. Nociceptive and endogenous opioid systems in amphibians are reviewed, and results of preclinical research on opioid and nonopioid analgesics summarized. Recommended opioid and nonopioid analgesics are summarized, and practical recommendations made for their clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-44
Number of pages12
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2011

Keywords

  • Acetic acid test
  • Amphibians
  • Analgesia
  • Opioid
  • Rana pipiens

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