A spinal site mediates opiate analgesia in frogs

Craig W. Stevens, Paul D. Pezalla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The application of acetic acid to the hind leg of a frog will induce a spinally mediated wiping reflex only if the acetic acid concentration is above a certain threshold. By using this reflex as the basis of a test for nociception, we show that morphine sulfate is a potent analgesic in the frog when injected into the lumbar area of the spinal cord. Significant analgesia is induced within 5 min after injection of as little as 0.0316 μg of morphine sulfate. Low doses of morphine sulfate (0.0316 or 0.1 μg) induce analgesia which dissipates within 1 h while for higher doses (0.316, 1.0 or 3.16 μg) the analgesia persists for at least 3 h. The analgesic effect of 0.316 μg of morphine sulfate is completely blocked by naloxone HCl at either 0.158 or 0.316 μg. Animals receiving naloxone alone (0.316 μg) appear to be slightly hyperalgesic compared to saline injected controls but this effect is not significant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2097-2103
Number of pages7
JournalLife Sciences
Issue number21
StatePublished - 21 Nov 1983


Dive into the research topics of 'A spinal site mediates opiate analgesia in frogs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this